Promoting protection, reasonable use of resources is one of the issues in content Actively coping with climate change, deploying protection of resources and environment which the 7th session of 11th Central Committee of Communist Party of Vietnam discussed.
Vietnam’s natural area is in medium scale, ranking 59th among 200 countries and territories, but its large population (13th), therefore average natural land area per capita is very low (0,38 ha), only 1/5 of the world average level (1,96ha).
Vietnam’s mineral resources are relatively diverse of categories; some minerals have large reserves, potential to develop into industries such as petroleum, bauxite, titanium, coal, rare earth…; large potential of renewable energy, especially wind energy, solar energy, geothermal energy, biomass, hydropower…
The total average annual fresh water of Vietnam is about 830 billion m3, potential of underground water reaches about 63 billion m3 / year; over 60% of fresh water comes from foreign. Vietnam’s sea area is diverse of fishery resources, people has discovered about 11,000 species residing in more than 20 types of typical ecosystems.
To manage our own abundant mineral resources, The Party and State of Vietnam early have built as well as changed and completed step by step our policy system, laws, created structure of the State in resources management; investment in basic surveys has got more attention. Several programs, projects of basic surveys in resources implemented, especially in geological and minerals survey.
However, besides achievements, there were some drawback existing in resources management. They were, resources management have not been adequate attention; awareness of exploitation and use of resources have not been right yet in some points, especially in the relationship between immediate and long term benefits. Policies and laws on resources management were still inadequate, incomprehensive, not closely and remote from reality. Resources have not been surveyed and evaluated fully their potential and value; have not exploited, used reasonably, effectively and sustainably, some were overexploited leading to degradation and depletion.
Based on the practical situation of the resources management last time as well as upcoming time, the Party has set out general objectives and specific objectives up to 2020.
Accordingly, regarding general objectives, up to 2020, Vietnam will have a fundamental change in the exploitation and use of resources in reasonable, effective and sustainable direction
Up to 2050, Vietnam will become a nation which exploits and uses resources reasonably, effectively and sustainably.
Regarding specific objectives, up to 2020, evaluating potential, value of important resources on the mainland; achieving significant step in basic surveys of marine resources. Using national resources economically, effectively and sustainably; ensuring the balance of the land for socio-economic development and protecting 3.8 million ha land of cultivating rice; enhancing the efficiency of using water per unit of GDP; exploiting effectively and sustainably ecology, landscape, and biological resources. Converting structure of using energy in the direction of increasing the proportion of renewable energy, new energy above 5.6% of total primary commercial energy; reducing energy consumption per unit of GDP.
Based on general objectives as well as specific objectives, the Party determines specific missions for the resources management. They are survey and evaluation of potential, reserves, economic value of national resources.
Specifically, focusing on implementing programs and projects of basic survey in resources, especially basic survey in mineral resources, water resources, and marine resources; focusing on basic geological and mineral surveys in the deep sea, developing new minerals. Strengthening the basic surveys, evaluating of quality and potential of land resource, degradation and pollution of land and creating a united database system synchronizing on each of soil type associated with purpose of use.
Promoting the basic geological and mineral survey on the mainland and undersea; early evaluating potential of strategic mineral resources, new mineral; exploring some imprtant strategic minerals; reviewing, evaluating impact of climate change on coastal mines; creating national database of geology and minerals. Accelerating construction progress and announcing a map of water resources, including which giving priority to the Mekong Delta, Red River Delta, Central Highlands, key economic regions, regions of water shortages and other regions of water scarcity. Attaching special importance to strengthening survey, exploration and discovery of new minerals in the deep sea serving the country’s development. Calculating gradually value of resources in product prices.
Reasonable exploitation, effective and sustainable use of national resources.
Classifying, strategizing, planning of protection, reasonable exploitation, effective and sustainable use of important strategic resources. Creating and implementing strategies of protection, reasonable exploitation and use resources of land, minerals, water, forest, fishery resources, and renewable energy. Extractive industries transparency initiative (EITI).
Combining reserving important strategic minerals to promoting reasonable and effective exploitation of mineral resources; orienting importing some kinds of strategic mineral to meet long term economic development; strengthening processing and don’t export raw minerals. Early preventing, stopping illegal exploitation and export of minerals. Restructuring mineral industries associated with deep minerals processing to meet domestic demand, limiting mineral export as raw materials and use effectively minerals after exploitation. Building operating procedures in reservoir on 11 watersheds. Strengthening mechanisms of regulation, accomodation of water resources contributing on limiting water shortage regionally and seasonally. Building and implementing plans and solutions to ensure low flows in the dry season on the watershed and security of water sources. Creating corridors to protect important water sources.
Researching to make artificial rain, exploiting fresh water from sea water to serve life of people, soldiers, fisherman in the sea and islands.
Improving and recovering polluted, exhausted rivers. Cooperating with regional countries to monitor operations of exploitation, use water upstream of Red river and Mekong river, early forecasting issue relating to national water source to confront actively and handle timely.
Protecting, preventing from desertification, salinization, soil erosion… And ensuring step by step land area for forest development as planned, especially in mountainous Northwest, North Central and Central Highland.
Promoting development and use new energy, renewable energy, new fuels and materials to replace traditional resources.
Researching exploitation, promoting values of ecology, landscape, genetic resources to serve socio-economic development, especially ecotourism, agricultural development.
Promoting, supporting abroad investment in exploration, exploitation of resources to meet the requirements of domestic industries.
Strategizing search, exploration and exploitation of new resources from the outside. Building and implementing strategies of minerals, science and technology to explore new minerals. Promoting, supporting mineral exploitation and processing corporations of Vietnam to cooperate, invest abroad, establish a network of partners of strategic mineral to meet requirements of the country’s industrialization, modernization.
Researching production various kinds of new materials, fuels which could replace traditional resources.
Researching and applying new technologies, nanotechnology… to produce various kinds of new materials, fuels which could replace traditional minerals, materials. Promoting use of recyclable waste as inputs for industrial production sectors.
Promoting the value of natural landscapes, ecosystem services, and genetic resources.
Researching exploitation, promoting ecological values, landscape and genetic resources to serve socio-economic development, especially eco-tourism, agricultural development. /.